The North Koreans are masters at creating underground facilities, up to and including aviation runways, to mitigate US/RoK air superiority during a potential conflict. Four invasion tunnels have been discovered under the DMZ (see middle of page) and more are suspected to exist. There have been reports that North Korea engineers helped Middle Eastern terror groups build tunnel complexes.
Read about 2nd ID tunnel training below and see additional photos here. If you haven’t read the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel about North Korea The Orphan Master’s Son, it’s worth it just for the descriptions of KPA tunnel warfare training (imagination and/or reality?).
From U.S. DoD: “U.S. Soldiers from the 2nd ID and the Republic of Korea have built subterranean training facilities to prepare for conflict in cities. The partner nations engaged Exercise Warrior Shield in March 2023 to strengthen US and ROK collaboration across all domains while improving tactics and procedures. The combined forces also conducted air assault and ground forces operations.
During Warrior Shield, Soldiers from 2nd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division simulated breaching the entrances of underground buildings.
‘They have actually acquired some material solutions to operate underground better without constraints,’ (Eighth Army commander Lt. Gen. Bill) Burleson said. ‘That will allow them to operate in underground facilities … and we know there’s facilities under North Korea that we’ve got to be prepared for should conflict come.’”